Volume 6

Sixth volume of Épijournal de Géométrie Algébrique - 2022

1. Finite torsors over strongly $F$-regular singularities

Javier Carvajal-Rojas.
We investigate finite torsors over big opens of spectra of strongly $F$-regular germs that do not extend to torsors over the whole spectrum. Let $(R,\mathfrak{m},k)$ be a strongly $F$-regular $k$-germ where $k$ is an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p>0$. We prove the existence of a finite local cover $R \subset R^{\star}$ so that $R^{\star}$ is a strongly $F$-regular $k$-germ and: for all finite algebraic groups $G/k$ with solvable neutral component, every $G$-torsor over a big open of $\mathrm{Spec} R^{\star}$ extends to a $G$-torsor everywhere. To achieve this, we obtain a generalized transformation rule for the $F$-signature under finite local extensions. Such formula is used to show that that the torsion of $\mathrm{Cl} R$ is bounded by $1/s(R)$. By taking cones, we conclude that the Picard group of globally $F$-regular varieties is torsion-free. Likewise, it shows that canonical covers of $\mathbb{Q}$-Gorenstein strongly $F$-regular singularities are strongly $F$-regular.

2. The Mori fan of the Dolgachev-Nikulin-Voisin family in genus $2$

Klaus Hulek ; Carsten Liese.
In this paper we study the Mori fan of the Dolgachev-Nikulin-Voisin family in degree $2$ as well as the associated secondary fan. The main result is an enumeration of all maximal dimensional cones of the two fans.

3. Integral cohomology of quotients via toric geometry

Grégoire Menet.
We describe the integral cohomology of $X/G$ where $X$ is a compact complex manifold and $G$ a cyclic group of prime order with only isolated fixed points. As a preliminary step, we investigate the integral cohomology of toric blow-ups of quotients of $\mathbb{C}^n$. We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the spectral sequence of equivariant cohomology of $(X,G)$ to degenerate at the second page. As an application, we compute the Beauville--Bogomolov form of $X/G$ when $X$ is a Hilbert scheme of points on a K3 surface and $G$ a symplectic automorphism group of orders 5 or 7.

4. Mirror symmetry for Nahm branes

Emilio Franco ; Marcos Jardim.
The Dirac--Higgs bundle is a hyperholomorphic bundle over the moduli space of stable Higgs bundles of coprime rank and degree. We provide an algebraic generalization to the case of trivial degree and the rank higher than $1$. This allow us to generalize to this case the Nahm transform defined by Frejlich and the second named author, which, out of a stable Higgs bundle, produces a vector bundle with connection over the moduli space of rank 1 Higgs bundles. By performing the higher rank Nahm transform we obtain a hyperholomorphic bundle with connection over the moduli space of stable Higgs bundles of rank $n$ and degree 0, twisted by the gerbe of liftings of the projective universal bundle. Such hyperholomorphic vector bundles over the moduli space of stable Higgs bundles can be seen, in the physicist's language, as BBB-branes twisted by the above mentioned gerbe. We refer to these objects as Nahm branes. Finally, we study the behaviour of Nahm branes under Fourier--Mukai transform over the smooth locus of the Hitchin fibration, checking that the resulting objects are supported on a Lagrangian multisection of the Hitchin fibration, so they describe partial data of BAA-branes.

5. Density of Arithmetic Representations of Function Fields

Hélène Esnault ; Moritz Kerz.
We propose a conjecture on the density of arithmetic points in the deformation space of representations of the étale fundamental group in positive characteristic. This? conjecture has applications to étale cohomology theory, for example it implies a Hard Lefschetz conjecture. We prove the density conjecture in tame degree two for the curve $\mathbb{P}^1\setminus \{0,1,\infty\}$. v2: very small typos corrected.v3: final. Publication in Epiga.

6. $G$-fixed Hilbert schemes on $K3$ surfaces, modular forms, and eta products

Jim Bryan ; Ádám Gyenge.
Let $X$ be a complex $K3$ surface with an effective action of a group $G$ which preserves the holomorphic symplectic form. Let $$ Z_{X,G}(q) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} e\left(\operatorname{Hilb}^{n}(X)^{G} \right)\, q^{n-1} $$ be the generating function for the Euler characteristics of the Hilbert schemes of $G$-invariant length $n$ subschemes. We show that its reciprocal, $Z_{X,G}(q)^{-1}$ is the Fourier expansion of a modular cusp form of weight $\frac{1}{2} e(X/G)$ for the congruence subgroup $\Gamma_{0}(|G|)$. We give an explicit formula for $Z_{X,G}$ in terms of the Dedekind eta function for all 82 possible $(X,G)$. The key intermediate result we prove is of independent interest: it establishes an eta product identity for a certain shifted theta function of the root lattice of a simply laced root system. We extend our results to various refinements of the Euler characteristic, namely the Elliptic genus, the Chi-$y$ genus, and the motivic class.

7. The conjectures of Artin-Tate and Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer

S. Lichtenbaum ; N. Ramachandran ; T. Suzuki.
We provide two proofs that the conjecture of Artin-Tate for a fibered surface is equivalent to the conjecture of Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer for the Jacobian of the generic fibre. As a byproduct, we obtain a new proof of a theorem of Geisser relating the orders of the Brauer group and the Tate-Shafarevich group.

8. A conjectural formula for $DR_g(a,-a) \lambda_g$

Alexandr Buryak ; Francisco Hernández Iglesias ; Sergey Shadrin.
We propose a conjectural formula for $DR_g(a,-a) \lambda_g$ and check all its expected properties. Our formula refines the one point case of a similar conjecture made by the first named author in collaboration with Guéré and Rossi, and we prove that the two conjectures are in fact equivalent, though in a quite non-trivial way.

9. Automorphism group schemes of bielliptic and quasi-bielliptic surfaces

Gebhard Martin.
Bielliptic and quasi-bielliptic surfaces form one of the four classes of minimal smooth projective surfaces of Kodaira dimension $0$. In this article, we determine the automorphism schemes of these surfaces over algebraically closed fields of arbitrary characteristic, generalizing work of Bennett and Miranda over the complex numbers; we also find some cases that are missing from the classification of automorphism groups of bielliptic surfaces in characteristic $0$.

10. Examples of surfaces with canonical map of degree 4

Carlos Rito.
We give two examples of surfaces with canonical map of degree 4 onto a canonical surface.

11. Autour de la conjecture de Tate entière pour certains produits de dimension $3$ sur un corps fini

Federico Scavia.
Let $X$ be the product of a surface satisfying $b_2=\rho$ and of a curve over a finite field. We study a strong form of the integral Tate conjecture for $1$-cycles on $X$. We generalize and give unconditional proofs of several results of our previous paper with J.-L. Colliot-Thélène.

12. A gluing construction of projective K3 surfaces

Takayuki Koike ; Takato Uehara.
We construct a non-Kummer projective K3 surface $X$ which admits compact Levi-flats by holomorphically patching two open complex surfaces obtained as the complements of tubular neighborhoods of elliptic curves embedded in blow-ups of the projective plane at nine general points.

13. Moduli spaces on the Kuznetsov component of Fano threefolds of index 2

Matteo Altavilla ; Marin Petkovic ; Franco Rota.
General hyperplane sections of a Fano threefold $Y$ of index 2 and Picard rank 1 are del Pezzo surfaces, and their Picard group is related to a root system. To the corresponding roots, we associate objects in the Kuznetsov component of $Y$ and investigate their moduli spaces, using the stability condition constructed by Bayer, Lahoz, Macrì, and Stellari, and the Abel--Jacobi map. We identify a subvariety of the moduli space isomorphic to $Y$ itself, and as an application we prove a (refined) categorical Torelli theorem for general quartic double solids.

14. Chern currents of coherent sheaves

Richard Lärkäng ; Elizabeth Wulcan.
Given a finite locally free resolution of a coherent analytic sheaf $\mathcal F$, equipped with Hermitian metrics and connections, we construct an explicit current, obtained as the limit of certain smooth Chern forms of $\mathcal F$, that represents the Chern class of $\mathcal F$ and has support on the support of $\mathcal F$. If the connections are $(1,0)$-connections and $\mathcal F$ has pure dimension, then the first nontrivial component of this Chern current coincides with (a constant times) the fundamental cycle of $\mathcal F$. The proof of this goes through a generalized Poincaré-Lelong formula, previously obtained by the authors, and a result that relates the Chern current to the residue current associated with the locally free resolution.

15. Tropicalization of the universal Jacobian

Margarida Melo ; Samouil Molcho ; Martin Ulirsch ; Filippo Viviani.
In this article we provide a stack-theoretic framework to study the universal tropical Jacobian over the moduli space of tropical curves. We develop two approaches to the process of tropicalization of the universal compactified Jacobian over the moduli space of curves -- one from a logarithmic and the other from a non-Archimedean analytic point of view. The central result from both points of view is that the tropicalization of the universal compactified Jacobian is the universal tropical Jacobian and that the tropicalization maps in each of the two contexts are compatible with the tautological morphisms. In a sequel we will use the techniques developed here to provide explicit polyhedral models for the logarithmic Picard variety.

16. Higher Hida and Coleman theories on the modular curve

George Boxer ; Vincent Pilloni.
We construct Hida and Coleman theories for the degree 0 and 1 cohomology of automorphic line bundles on the modular curve and we define a p-adic duality pairing between the theories in degree 0 and 1.

17. Néron models of Jacobians over bases of arbitrary dimension

Thibault Poiret.
We work with a smooth relative curve $X_U/U$ with nodal reduction over an excellent and locally factorial scheme $S$. We show that blowing up a nodal model of $X_U$ in the ideal sheaf of a section yields a new nodal model, and describe how these models relate to each other. We construct a Néron model for the Jacobian of $X_U$, and describe it locally on $S$ as a quotient of the Picard space of a well-chosen nodal model. We provide a combinatorial criterion for the Néron model to be separated.

18. A characterization of finite étale morphisms in tensor triangular geometry

Beren Sanders.
We provide a characterization of finite étale morphisms in tensor triangular geometry. They are precisely those functors which have a conservative right adjoint, satisfy Grothendieck--Neeman duality, and for which the relative dualizing object is trivial (via a canonically-defined map).

19. An atlas of K3 surfaces with finite automorphism group

Xavier Roulleau.
We study the geometry of the K3 surfaces $X$ with a finite number automorphisms and Picard number $\geq 3$. We describe these surfaces classified by Nikulin and Vinberg as double covers of simpler surfaces or embedded in a projective space. We study moreover the configurations of their finite set of $(-2)$-curves.

20. Etale and crystalline companions, I

Kiran S. Kedlaya.
Let $X$ be a smooth scheme over a finite field of characteristic $p$. Consider the coefficient objects of locally constant rank on $X$ in $\ell$-adic Weil cohomology: these are lisse Weil sheaves in étale cohomology when $\ell \neq p$, and overconvergent $F$-isocrystals in rigid cohomology when $\ell=p$. Using the Langlands correspondence for global function fields in both the étale and crystalline settings (work of Lafforgue and Abe, respectively), one sees that on a curve, any coefficient object in one category has "companions" in the other categories with matching characteristic polynomials of Frobenius at closed points. A similar statement is expected for general $X$; building on work of Deligne, Drinfeld showed that any étale coefficient object has étale companions. We adapt Drinfeld's method to show that any crystalline coefficient object has étale companions; this has been shown independently by Abe--Esnault. We also prove some auxiliary results relevant for the construction of crystalline companions of étale coefficient objects; this subject will be pursued in a subsequent paper.

21. The behavior of essential dimension under specialization

Zinovy Reichstein ; Federico Scavia.
Let $A$ be a discrete valuation ring with generic point $\eta$ and closed point $s$. We show that in a family of torsors over $\operatorname{Spec}(A)$, the essential dimension of the torsor above $s$ is less than or equal to the essential dimension of the torsor above $\eta$. We give two applications of this result, one in mixed characteristic, the other in equal characteristic.

22. Walls and asymptotics for Bridgeland stability conditions on 3-folds

Marcos Jardim ; Antony Maciocia.
We consider Bridgeland stability conditions for three-folds conjectured by Bayer-Macrì-Toda in the case of Picard rank one. We study the differential geometry of numerical walls, characterizing when they are bounded, discussing possible intersections, and showing that they are essentially regular. Next, we prove that walls within a certain region of the upper half plane that parametrizes geometric stability conditions must always intersect the curve given by the vanishing of the slope function and, for a fixed value of s, have a maximum turning point there. We then use all of these facts to prove that Gieseker semistability is equivalent to asymptotic semistability along a class of paths in the upper half plane, and to show how to find large families of walls. We illustrate how to compute all of the walls and describe the Bridgeland moduli spaces for the Chern character (2,0,-1,0) on complex projective 3-space in a suitable region of the upper half plane.

23. Automorphisms of $\mathbb{P}^1$-bundles over rational surfaces

Jérémy Blanc ; Andrea Fanelli ; Ronan Terpereau.
In this paper we provide the complete classification of $\mathbb{P}^1$-bundles over smooth projective rational surfaces whose neutral component of the automorphism group is maximal. Our results hold over any algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.

24. Maximality of moduli spaces of vector bundles on curves

Erwan Brugallé ; Florent Schaffhauser.
We prove that moduli spaces of semistable vector bundles of coprime rank and degree over a non-singular real projective curve are maximal real algebraic varieties if and only if the base curve itself is maximal. This provides a new family of maximal varieties, with members of arbitrarily large dimension. We prove the result by comparing the Betti numbers of the real locus to the Hodge numbers of the complex locus and showing that moduli spaces of vector bundles over a maximal curve actually satisfy a property which is stronger than maximality and that we call Hodge-expressivity. We also give a brief account on other varieties for which this property was already known.